Advanced Data Management for iOS with DEVONthink

Devonthink To Go.png

This has been a while coming. 1 Having mentioned this app a number of times, I haven’t yet offered a detailed account — something it thoroughly deserves. Those mentions have prompted a reasonable question, is it worth buying DEVONthink to Go for iOS if you don’t have a Mac? The short answer is yes. Qualified by what you want to do with it, but you won’t be short on possibilities. Whether you’re looking for a private Evernote alternative, want to improve your digital file management, better organise research material, or you want secure storage and advanced search capabilities for your data. There is much that DEVONthink can do on iOS. Of course, that leads us to a much longer answer — and, believe it or not, this is a mere introduction.

On Being Unique

Most of the apps we use on iOS can be distinguished by category, or specific task. They’re often things we need, but as long as you have something in that category, capable of a specific job, the app itself comes down to personal preference. It’s true we’re not always spoilt for choice — and I’ll happily point out that some things are better than others. Nonetheless, if it’s a PDF reader, notes app, text editor, or email client, they’re all interchangeable to some degree. Whether you prefer GoodNotes to Notability, or PDF Expert to PDFpen, either will do the job. Until something better comes along, that is. 2

There is a different kind of app where interchangeability no longer applies. Or at least, where it’s not quite so simple. They’re few and far between, but there are some obvious examples. Take Drafts for iOS, sure it’s a text editor — and there are plenty of those — yet, that seemingly simple function belies a unique automation engine for text based productivity. Having popularised the x-callback-url system on iOS, Drafts is as much an inception as it is an app. 3 By all accounts, inter-app automation via URL was only half a hack until x-callback allowed apps to return the call — so to speak.

The likes of 1Writer and Editorial can be loosely grouped with drafts. Like Drafts, 1Writer uses javascript automation, but more to bridge the gap from text editor to word processor. While Editorial is a high-spec graphical automation tool for manipulating text with Python. Then there is Pythonista. I can’t think of anything else like it. Not really. There are other code editors, but Pythonista can be invoked as an extension to perform scripted automation. Something that seemed at one time like it would never arrive on iOS. How Pythonista ever sneaked past moderation remains a mystery. Thankfully it did, and it remains a fixture of advanced automation on the iPad.

Perhaps the most obvious example is Workflow. Apple swallowed it whole to make an entire subset of fan-geeks exhale a coordinated, and confused sigh. What will happen? The optimists are betting on some form of native integration with iOS, while the half-empty crowd are clasping their hands and pursing their lips for a round of tutting on podcasts. Jokes aside, if Apple ever took Workflow offline, they wouldn’t so much be shooting themselves in the foot as they would be cleaving the entire leg off the idea of an iPad as a serious working device. These are all unique, and important apps.

Before I digress any further, I’m trying to provide some context for DEVONthink to Go. 4 Both to place it in good company, and to make the case for how unique it is. To view it as nothing more than a companion app for the macOS versions of DEVONthink would be a mistake. Sure, it can be used like that. As far as companions go, it’s a particularly powerful one. The iOS version, however, can stand on its own. It is something of a category in itself, given its crossover functionality. This is quite an achievement, especially as the app was completely re-written for version 2.0. 5

When used to its potential, DEVONthink can be just as important as the apps mentioned above on iOS. It's easily as unique. But like anything, it comes down to how you intend to use it. Implementation is key. Getting the most from any of the DEVONthink apps means putting them at the centre of your workflow for capturing, storing, and retrieving data. DEVONthink to Go is no different.

All in the Tags

Amid the changes in iOS 11 were significant improvements for managing files. There is no doubt the Files app — even in these early stages — is a welcome and useful development. The caveat is recognising where some of Apple’s long held resistance to such an app came from. For example, organising files and folders — stacking iCloud with a folder hierarchy — is now easier than ever. Yet, to do so embraces an outdated method of organising data. Where research and study is concerned, how one archives important material is a serious consideration. This is not to say you shouldn’t use folders, but if you’re handling a lot of data, it can get very messy.

This is where tags come in. A shallow file structure with carefully chosen tags adds depth to your metadata, giving you more surface area for search queries. Tagging gives you more hooks, but less visual confusion. Not only does the Files app allow more fine control for folders, users now have immediate access to Apple’s native tagging system. Whether carried over from macOS, or implemented locally on an iOS device, tagging can be utilised for search queries and data retrieval.

Apple’s implementation of tagging across platforms has been casual at best. It’s kind to say it remains a work in progress. However, if only a gentle nod, it is still an acknowledgement of the utility in tagging for organising data. Ironically, if you find tagging useful and want to get more out of it, then you will need to go beyond the files app.

This is just one area that DEVONthink shines. Tagging is part of the DEVONthink DNA. Some aspects of native iOS tagging remain mysterious, but DEVONthink is smart enough to import the metadata applied in the Files app. Unfortunately, it doesn’t yet work the other way around.

DEVONthink's tagging is much more comprehensive than the native Apple offering


A Secure Central Repository

While organising a folder hierarchy in iCloud Drive is much easier with Files, ironically that app makes it less necessary to do so. I tend to work in the DEVONthink app directly, but DEVONthink data in Files is incredibly useful, and not just for quick access.

Data stored in DEVONthink can be accessed directly through the Files app

This is something I mentioned in my post on cloud storage. Regardless of the storage provider, by storing data in DEVONthink you can couple the convenience of the Files app with strong client-side encryption. The previous post talks about syncing with macOS, but the same applies if you are only using iOS. The data is encrypted and decrypted on your device, making it secure during transfer, and at rest in the cloud. From that post,

If you are already a user on macOS, adding DEVONthink to Go to your workflow is straightforward. The database itself is encrypted, and the app supports pretty much any file type you can throw at it. Devon Technologies are one of the oldest Apple software developers around. So it is no surprise to see them embracing the new Files App. This means DEVONthink to go can be used as a file provider. So you can store your files safely, and edit them in place using third-party apps. In my opinion, this is a pretty sound option. In many cases, it could be enough. If it is, managing files through DEVONthink will avoid the need for a dropbox alternative.

DEVONthink is also very smart about storage, giving you the option to keep metadata locally, and download files on demand. Or if you prefer, you can store everything locally. As the engine is built to sync databases individually, there is even a little storage hack — if you are so inclined.

Each database can synced using the same, or different cloud services. That means you can use the free tier of different services to save on the cost of storage. Admittedly the supported services are still limited, but if you are just starting they will be more than adequate. Perhaps more to the point, it also means you can sync multiple copies of databases, adding redundancy to your backups. This includes backing everything up to iCloud.6

Backing up data on iOS requires users to think differently, especially if you are not using a Mac or a PC as the mother ship. DEVONthink is one of few apps that can give you extra peace of mind.

Advanced Search

All but the most perfunctory writing requires research. Couple that to the focused nature of an iPad workflow, and you have a use case for a purpose built repository. Writers using Scrivener have tools built in to that app, but while they might be enough for some writers, that research is — in practical terms — silo’ed by project. I like to have that material available more generally, whether during, or after a project is complete. 7 Spotlight is a great tool for search, DEVONthink is better.

DEVONthink is built for search. A consistent naming convention, and tags can only be helpful to maintaining a research database. DEVONthink comes preloaded with tools that will either compliment that process, or help you retrieve data regardless. With Boolean search operators, and parentheses, refining search terms will return items with more specificity. You will find more, and lose less.

Search queries can be constructed using the boolean operators AND, OR, NOT, and the truly helpful NEAR. For example, I might remember that I saved an article that included the phrase ‘Why Aristotle was never quite as awesome as Plato’. I can search for the document with: NEAR (Aristotle Plato, 10), and DEVONthink will return items that have the keywords Aristotle and Plato within 10 words of each other. Of course, you can go much further by changing search queries together.

With boolean search operators, users can construct sophisticated search queries

My first example returns a lot of results, but let’s say I remember it was an informal source. I could construct a search query to eliminate results that have a keyword to indicate it comes from an academic journal. I would use something like NEAR (Aristotle Plato, 10) NOT Journal. I could use a DOI number, or Abstract as elements common to those kinds of results.

Even if by trial and error, the ability to construct granular search queries makes DEVONthink to Go an invaluable tool. If you are a user of DEVONthink Pro on macOS, you should know the query syntax is a little different. It can be frustrating if you don’t know that, but the simplified version for iOS makes sense. While accurate searches are crucial, there is a swiftness involved with mobile input. The developers are on record as saying an alternative syntax is on the roadmap, to make the apps more consistent. The existing syntax would remain, which is a good thing to my mind. I have never had so much success at finding what I need among my haphazard collections.

PDF Management

I have consistently recommended PDF Expert for a stand-alone PDF reader on iOS. Until recently, together with the free Documents app from Readdle, and Papers 3 for iOS, that was the extent of my PDF workflow. It is not so clear cut anymore. For one thing, the makers of the PDF framework PSPDFkit released their free PDF Viewer app, making powerful PDF management available to users for nothing. But there are other reasons, one of them is DEVONthink to Go.

DEVONthink to Go includes a comprehensive PDF editor, with excellent Apple Pencil support


Some advice I give out freely but struggle to keep is, try to minimise the apps you use for essentially the same task. Managing PDFs for your research can get out of hand if you don’t have a clear idea of how you organise them. There is no problem with using a third-party PDF app with DEVONthink to Go.The support for editing files in place means you can edit files in other apps, without having to copy them to another app. However, DEVONthink’s built in PDF editor is more than capable. It gets out of your way, includes excellent Apple Pencil support, and has all the requisite annotations tools. You can edit the documents themselves, even add pages if necessary. Sometimes you might need to do more with annotations, but that is about the extent of the limitations.

These are considerations to make if you are assessing the in-app purchase. Especially if you are setting your iPad up for the first time, it could make a lot of sense to go all in and keep your document editing and annotations in one place.

Note Taking

The actual in-app note-taking features are quite sparse, but functionality of the app makes up for that in other ways. I have been making a point of laying out a use case where DEVONthink is a central hub for storing data, but it can be a point of creation too.

DEVONthink to go supports rich text, plain text, and markdown, with the ability to capture, read, edit, or create within the app itself. The editor in the app itself is very basic, so I tend to use a third-party text editor. The ability to edit files in place means you can use whatever app you choose, as long as it supports file providers. In my experience to date, the app with the nicest integration is iA Writer, especially since the recent update. Another with reliable support is 1Writer.

Notes stored in DEVONthink can be created, and edited in third-party text editors like iA Writer

Editing in place means you are opening the file in your choice of editor, and the changes are reflected back in the database. Until recently, this wasn’t really possible. DEVONthink used a workaround it called ‘round trip’, which worked, but wasn’t ideal. Once the file is the database, the changes will be reflected whether you edit it in the third-party editor, or in DEVONthink itself. If you know anything about iOS system extensions, you will now that there are two types of actions in the share menu for files. One opens the file in another app, the other copies the file into the other apps storage. Edit in place means you are not making a copy.

There have have been reports of strange behaviour, although I have only experienced it a couple of times myself. It seems to happen more when using the share extension, rather than starting the edit in the text editor first, and using the files integration. It is also worth pointing out that all of this functionality is new, as are the frameworks in iOS that support it. There are a few bugs in the system, but nothing catastrophic.

This might appear to work back to front at first, but if you think of DEVONthink as the storage facility, it will sink in. Where it gets messy is if you try to edit the same file with multiple editors, you will end up with conflicts and error messages. My best advice is to be consistent.

1Writer is another excellent text editor that can be used with DEVONthink

Replacing EverNote

This is something that comes up a lot in relation to DEVONthink apps. Except for a couple of passing comments, there is conspicuous absence of Evernote coverage on this site. It’s not that I don’t think Evernote is useful. If anything were a gateway drug to digital productivity apps, Evernote is it. I was once a heavy user. The idea behind Evernote is to throw everything you ever come across at it, it can even be therapeutic for a digital pack rat who can’t let anything go. Clip it, and forget; or come back to if you will.

DEVONthink to Go has a powerful web clipper capable of replacing Evernote

If the defining Evernote feature is its clipper, that can be a problem, as there is nothing judicious about the process. Capturing information is ridiculously easy with Evernote. DEVONthink can operate on the same principle — if you wish — only completely private. The DEVONthink clipper might seem basic 8, but it is a powerful little extension. With the extensive automation feature on iOS, you can customise and extend its capabilities to suit your own needs.

Unlike Evernote documents are not stored with DEVONthink in a proprietary format, so your data doesn’t feel so captive. If you’re a macOS user getting your notes out of Evernote is not difficult. 9 Yet, the more material you store there, the more reason you have to be nervous about the portability of that data. This is a double edged sword for Evernote and some users. The more you get drawn in, the harder it is to leave, and yet if you have a lot of important data there you’ll start to think about what might happen to it.

I was concerned about securing the future of my own access to my data, but ultimately it was Evernote’s access to that data that provided the final push. What promoted me to jump was the increasingly creepy feeling I had about their privacy oscillations. Not long before all the hullabaloo about flip-flopping over their privacy policy , I was one of the users hit by a bug that deleted attachments from certain notes. I was among a group of users who received a year’s free premium subscription by way of apology. Ironically, the only thing I used Evernote for over the course of that year was to export my data.

Moving out

Truthfully, I hardly ever used Evernote to take notes. As I think many people do, I used it like a database. Moving that workflow to DEVONthink is very simple. Although, even if I still throw a lot at DEVONthink, I tend to do it with a little more foresight. That you can delineate types of data within a hierarchy that goes all the way to database level, means I don’t have the overwhelming sense that my research data is being polluted by gift ideas, and tutorials for obscure automations that I’ll probably never use. As for the data itself, I can still have the convenience of cloud storage, only now it’s encrypted and I can choose how, and what I want to synchronise.

These things are just as true for an iOS only workflow as they are for a full blown DEVONthink Office pro user archiving their email. There remains a problem, however. As I alluded to above, getting your data out of Evernote, and into DEVONthink on the Mac is a trivial matter. DEVONthink makes it very simple, with Evernote API integration. Without a desktop of sone form in the middle, however, the same is not true for iOS users. The pressure points for going iPad only are now much fewer than ever, but there remain a couple. I often mention citations, then there is this kind of data transfer.

There are workarounds for this. If you’re considering it, you’ll be happy to learn I have you covered. I was going to include the options, with different instructions and a couple of workflows I have built in this post, but I took a look at how long it is getting and broke it off into a seperate piece. It will go up not long after this.

Automation Meets Drag and Drop

Speaking of Workflow, an area of considerable value to an iOS only working life is automation. While the default iOS interaction model of one app at a time has been supplemented with multitasking features, the secondary, and even tertiary apps are almost exclusively invoked as part of a singular, focused task. 10 The benefit, whether intentional or not, is the iPad encourages a kind of focused work that more traditional computing interfaces do not. This is particular beneficial for academic work.

This is a curious strength, but as anyone who has done a lot of work on an iPad will tell you, it has its drawbacks. Thankfully, most if not all insurmountable problems have been made history by two significant developments to the platform. The first was the aforementioned Workflow app. That app might be somewhat indebted to the inception of x-callback — as mentioned above — but Workflow kicked the automation door off its hinges, and you get the sense something much more significant is coming from that app. 11 The second development happened this year: drag and drop.

DEVONthink Drag and Drop OCR
Using Scanbot to add OCR to files in DEVONthink via drag and drop

It’s amusing to think the introduction of copy and paste to the iPhone was once an event. 12 Copying and pasting was for so long a cumbersome, finicky, and frustrating. With the APIs available to developers in iOS 11, we can now evaluate particular apps on the basis of how well they take-up native technologies, rather than what they can do to overcome a lack of the same. It might have been a stretch to call url-based automation native, but Apple has burred that distinction with Workflow. Regardless, DEVONthink To Go is tapped into both of those features — automation, plus drag and drop — extensively.

Support for drag and drop makes data migration simple through the Files app, or elsewhere in iOS

Drag and drop is pretty self-explanatory, although the version we get with iOS 11 makes it feel like a completely new innovation. It’s deep integration, system wide even mitigates the need for some, albeit minor, automations. The kind of work one tends to do with DEVONthink, however, is ripe for automating. Something the developers are keenly aware of.

The URL scheme in DEVONthink to Go allows a user to build very specific automations for every data type a database can hold. This includes, but is not limited to the following:

  • Create images
  • Create Bookmarks
  • Create documents, including Plain-text, Markdown, Rich Text, and HTML
  • Create Web Archives
  • Retrieve file contents, and/or metadata
  • Perform custom searches

DEVONthink to Go will even perform service tasks via URL, such as indexing, syncing, and rebuilding caches, and you can change app settings. A lot these touches will be beyond most users needs, but it shows the meticulous level of detail that DEVON technologies drills into. More than that, these options provide troubleshooting options that may prove useful as databases become larger, and more devices are added to the chain. If you never use them, they offer security by way of both usefulness and insight into the forethought put to building the app. A it is intended for storing important information, all of this matters a great deal.

In Summary

To button this up, by returning to the question. Is DEVONthink to Go worth buying if you are an iOS only user? The answer remains, yes. Whether it is to act as a repository, a midway for automation, or to distill the need for multiple apps into one. There is a lot going on here. I’m not going to pretend it couldn’t be improved, but then DEVON technologies are nothing if not proactive in that regard.

I’ll also admit that I get more from this, as I use DEVONthink on both macOS and iOS, but that doesn’t diminish its role on my iPad by any stretch. If it were to go away, I would have a serious nuisance on my hands to pick apart the various things it does. As I’ve been writing this, the capacity of DEVONthink for working on iPad has had me peeling back layers of functionality.

At this point I’m aware of so many little things I have missed.This is especially true for Mac users, but that it should be obvious that was never the point of this post. At the moment I am experimenting with building more Workflows for DEVONthink to go, and that includes building on the options I have put together for referencing and citations. In the meantime, I have added a couple below that might be of interest.


These workflows are experiments. I’m posting them here as examples of what you can do with automation and DEVONthink. They remain a work in progress. If you are inclined to improve upon them, I would love to hear about it. If you build your own, think about adding them to the Workflow Directory

  • DEVONwiki — DEVONthink's internal linking structure remains consistent across platforms. This means you can use DT2GO for setting up a wiki style research library that will work across devices. This workflow uses a note in Drafts to reference PDF documents added to a DEVONthink database, either directly from the web, or from another storage location. With x-callback URL you can maintain the note itself in DEVONthink. I will post variations of this in future.
  • RSS to DEVONthink — As one of its many powers on macOS, DEVONthink can be used as an RSS aggregator and reader. The iOS version doesn’t have the same feature, but we can achieve a similar result with Workflow. 13
  • Evernote Text to DEVONthink — I mentioned above, the trouble with getting your data from Evernote to DEVONthink on iOS without a desktop computer in the middle. This should be self-explanatory. Bear in mind it will only transfer text notes. I have a follow post in the works for a more thorough migration,

You can pick up DEVONthink to Go on the App Store for US$21.99, with an in-app purchase case of $11.99 for the pro package 14

Until next time, enjoy.

  1. Longer even, since I tried to stay off the internet as much as possible last week for fear of spoilers. Sadly, I’m not joking.
  2. Or something new and shiny at least
  3. Greg Pierce the developer wrote the spec for x-callback
  4. Forgiving the name, that is. I can’t imagine why DEVONthink iOS wasn’t enough.
  5. If you haven't looked at it since version 1, this is a completely different app 
  6. The architecture is currently incompatible for DEVONthink’s version of selective sync, so iCloud Drive is only supported for backup at the moment.
  7. I have the advantage of using a Mac here, I keep mot scrivener and DEVONthink research in sync with Hazel. Something I will post at a later date
  8. The mobile version at least
  9. For iOS see below
  10. The exception here might be picture in picture, but you get the point
  11. Or rather, the developers of that app. Now with Apple
  12. Or testament to the breakneck speed of development since then
  13. Note, depending on how the feed is setup you may need to make changes to this for the desired results
  14. PDF annotations, and selective sync

iA Writer 5 for iOS Released

Ios Ulysses Alternative

If you are looking for a plain text writing app for academic writing — or for any writing for that matter. You could do a lot worse than to try out iA Writer. One of the first Markdown based Text Editors I ever used, it remains one of the writing apps I am most likely to recommend on any platform. With the recent change to a subscription model for Ulysses, a lot of writers are looking for an Alternative on iOS. 1 With this latest update, iA Writer is an ever more obvious candidate for that job.

Featuring Files and the Keyboard

In my post about academic writing on the iPad, I mentioned iA Writer is a pleasure to work with on iOS. That was always true, where the actual writing is concerned. Prior to this release, if you were used to working in an app like Ulysses, you might have found the organisational aspects of iA Writer less sophisticated. This update has addressed that in a big way. Both via the extension of utility to the keyboard, and through integration with the Files app in iOS 11. Retaining its singular focus on the writing experience, iA Writer now includes excellent search capabilities, and customisable commands. All from the keyboard.

iOS Ulysses Alternative
iA Writer makes it trivial to do everything from the keyboard

When it comes to words on a page, the writing experience of iA Writer has made it one of best text editors available . Information Architects appear to be obsessive about detail. Their manifesto of form follows content is evident in the deliberate choices of iA Writer’s user experience. The design ethos has adapted responsive typography to a distraction free writing environment. Minimalism done wrong can enforce its simplicity on the process of the user. In iA Writer, it presents a deceptively simple interface that hides a powerful, yet flexible workflow. Ultimately the app gets out of your way. The developers understand that a decent writing tool needs to adapt to a potentially messy workflow:

in practice writing resists a strictly linear process. A single note doesn’t transform smoothly into a draft, and from draft to editing is more of a Tango than a March. The common process is blurry, dynamic, and in many ways circular.

Still Writing in Word?

I come across a lot of writers who haven’t gotten past their Microsoft Word dependency. Often it is because they don’t realise what an alternative writing App like iA Writer is capable of. Turning in your papers as Word documents is not a problem. With iA Writer, or Ulysses you focus on the writing first, then export the finished product in the format required. Nothing has changed with this update for the end product, but exporting is another feature made accessible through the keyboard. On iOS, you might require some workarounds for referencing, but if you are looking to ditch the word processor. There is less standing in your way than you may realise.

Web Collaboration

The direction that Information Architects are taking is encouraging. They have opened the app up to a massive new user base with an Android version. That move has proved fruitful in encouraging the development of a web collaboration tool. That is a move that I will keep a keen eye on. Collaboration is another area that keeps writers attached to Microsoft Word, or more often Google Docs these days. The options for co-authored writing in plain text are few and far between, and I’m yet to find one with a remotely satisfying user experience. If the developers can bring anything like the polish of this latest update to iA Writer to web based collaboration, it could work out very well. The intention is for the web service to provide ongoing revenue, which I suspect will go down with users better than the subscription only option being adopted elsewhere. Time will tell.

For anyone still grappling with the subscription issue, the feature set of iA Writer makes it a compelling alternative to Ulysses. I have a subscription to Ulysses as part of Setapp, so I haven’t had to contemplate that dilemma too closely. If you have, you may want a comparable Markdown text editor for macOS, iOS, or both. To get a general feel for the app, you can start with a free trial of the Mac App. One of the features that has me using Ulysses more these days, is the ability to post directly to WordPress. You can do the same thing with iA Writer.

Free Update

iA Writer 5 is a free upgrade for owners of the app, and for new users the iOS version is still sold at a ridiculously low price. The macOS version of the update is yet to be released, more on that when it arrives.

iA Writer is available on the App Store

  1. I’m not commenting on that debate here. A lot of writers are not only happy to pay the subscription, but like the idea they are supporting the most crucial app in their workflow.

Nebo: Handwriting Recognition on iPad Pro

iPad Handwriting Recogniton

Not too long ago, I wrote about handwritten note taking on the iPad. At the time I hadn’t yet spent much time with Myscript Nebo, but having since addressed that I feel it is appropriate to update the ledger. One of the caveats I put in front of that previous effort was the ability to take long form notes without the need of an Apple Pencil, so if you are looking at options for taking notes on the standard iPad, or you simply want to avoid the further cost of the Pencil, then what I the previous post still holds. For handwriting without the Apple Pencil, to my mind the best two options are still GoodNotes and Notability, and I have briefly covered the various tradeoffs users face with both apps. Both of those apps also have excellent Apple Pencil support, but having played with Nebo some more, to my mind there is no contest when it comes to handwriting recognition.

The Future of Handwriting


Handwriting Recognition iOS
Even the sketchiest of handwriting is no problem for Nebo’s handwriting recognition engine

People like to talk about killer apps, personally I don’t much like the phrase, but where Nebo is concerned, it really does seem like a killer for the competition. Apps like Notes Plus have been available in the App Store for some time, but while that might have led to advancements in the inking engines and textual recognition, those improvements are more often than not accompanied by either feature bloat, user interface baggage, or both. This is one of the areas that Nebo excels, the interface is minimalist without being too sparse, and rather than holding to the now dated skeuomorphic design philosophy that once ruled the iOS-sphere, Myscript have managed to tastefully incorporate hybrid analogue elements that remain necessary for a successful handwriting workflow. Writing between the lines is as helpful to your wonky adult scribbles as it was to your long-forgetten spelling homework.

It is not only the user interface that benefits from such careful balance, but the user experience is characterised by clever gestures that complement a natural writing workflow. With Pencil gestures a user can delete a word by scribbling it out, insert line breaks, join and seperate words with simple upward and downward strokes. Framing words, highlighting, underlining and a variety of bullets enable simple but effective formatting that not only stops short of overkill, but is simple to learn. The most impressive aspect of these formatting gestures is the resulting seamless workflow that avoids interrupting one’s note-taking on input.

Handwriting Recognition iPad
Editing text, like input, is managed with the Apple Pencil

The one area that the Pencil-centric interface can get a little tricky is in editing text after capture. Nebo’s handwriting recognition works in real-time, so if necessary you can make corrections on the fly [1]. If you happen to overlook a mistake until you have confirmed the conversion from handwriting into text, editing is still managed with the Apple Pencil. This is a reversal of the analogue to digital workflow, so while it is not difficult as such, I have to admit it takes a little getting used to. Regardless, Nebo still manages to capture the fine balance between a digital tool and an analogue workflow, something I feel other apps have come close to doing without quite getting there.

Nothing is Perfect

iOS 11 Nebo Notes App
Multitasking in iOS 11 with Nebo

At the risk of being hypocritical, there are things that Nebo cannot do that I like to have in a notes app. I confess to hypocrisy for a couple of reasons, for one I have something of an old-skool reverence for what is known as the Unix philosophy, which simply stated is ‘do one thing and do it well’. It seems to me that – whether intentional or not – by design, iOS is almost the ideal realisation of this modular approach. Nebo is exactly this kind of app, it does one thing, and it does it exceptionally well. However, defining the boundaries of that one thing is what developers have to contend with in balancing the features they include, and support in their apps. The decision that I find most confounding in Nebo is the inability to annotate PDF documents, which I feel is made more conspicuous in its absence by the fact that you can import images for markup, and you can export text as PDF. This is no more than a minor quibble, and as I say, a somewhat hypocritical one at that.

The Little Things

To be honest, I often force myself to handwrite, knowing full well the proven benefits. Fortunately, Nebo has some tricks that take advantage of the relative speed of analogue input, making it a more obvious choice for certain tasks. For example, the ability to export text to HTML means a quick and dirty blog post is only a few scribbles away. Dedicated math objects can perform solvable operations – and the resultant text can be converted for further editing in any LaTeX editor [2]. I would ordinarily open up Soulver for simple calculations, but that is not always necessary now. Nebo will also turn your ropey diagrams into congruent shapes for flow charts and mind maps. And, of course, optical character recognition means all of your text is searchable.

Nebo is not perfect, but there is no doubt that Myscript have pushed the envelope with handwriting recognition. If you have an iPad Pro, I would almost go as far to say that Nebo is enough to make picking up an Apple Pencil worth your while.

  1. Again, the handwriting recognition is remarkable, so you hardly ever need to do this  ↩

  2. Trust me, this is candy for math nerds  ↩

iOS 11 gets patched again…already

Apple Releases iOS 11.0.2 Update With Fix for iPhone 8 Crackling Earpiece Issue – Mac Rumors – This hasn’t been an auspicious start to the latest iOS cycle. Two patches in the last week or so, and plenty of complaints to boot. Nonetheless, users experiencing the crackling noises referenced in the release notes, will no doubt be relieved this has been addressed. With any luck this will also address the freezing issues that so many users are reporting.

Jordan Merrick’s Excellent Workflow Directory

Until Workflow created its own, Jordan Merrick was host to one of the best curated collections of Workflows one could hope to find. The directory was understandably taken down with the advent of an official version, which briefly included a mechanism for sharing workflows among the community of users. Apple’s acquisition of the Workflow team scuppered that initiative, insofar as they have kept open the official gallery within the app, but closed down the community aspect. Thankfully, generous users like Merrick have once again filled the breach. From

In December 2016, I announced that I’d no longer be updating Workflow Directory. The Workflow team had made some great improvements to the gallery, the biggest of which was user submissions. At the time, it didn’t make sense to continue working on the site when the built-in feature was so much better.

Fast forward to March 2017 and the news broke that Apple had acquired Workflow. While the app continues to be updated, the gallery is not accepting user submissions. Since then, I had often wondered if it’d make sense to reopen Workflow Directory.

So I’ve decided to do just that, but in the process I’ve made a fundamental change. After testing the waters last week with a similar endeavor, Workflow Directory into a GitHub repository. Existing workflows have been migrated (with the exception of a few that are non-functional) and I’ve added a few new ones too. Each workflow has an accompanying README containing a description.

Workflow Automation iOS
How's this for meta, this is a framed shot of the very workflow that framed it…

Workflow remains a glaring gap on this site. To be fair, I’ve not been at this too long, but the real reason is the art to doing the app justice. There are some ingenious users around creating incredibly inventive workflows. By way of qualification for the link to Jordan consider that every image posted on this site that is framed with an iPad or iPhone mockup has been created with either this Workflow, or its predecessor. Not only is it one of the best uses of the app I have come across, but it has saved me epic amounts of time.

There has been a lot of conjecture around the future of the Workflow app, but not only has the app continued to receive updates, the signs are good for some form of future integration into iOS [^ Perhaps even beyond, one can only hope]. The design language of visual automation hits the sweet spot between the über nerd and curious tinkerer, lowering the bar for entry by a remarkable degree. If you are worried that you might pour a lot of energy into something that is fated to disappear, I truly doubt that will happen in such a way that will render your learnings obsolete. The visual programming paradigm that has its roots in Automator has been so well refined for touch interaction by Workflow, that it is here to stay in one form or another. On the flip side, with initiatives like the Workflow Directory, if you swish to do so, you can get a fair amount of mileage out of the app without building any workflows of your own, or at least by adapting some to your own purposes. Of course, if you already have the chops, there is plenty of karma to be gained by pitching in to the directory with a contribution.

Mind Mapping on the iPad for a Bargain

I have been impressed by Lighten. One would expect the folks at Xmind know what they are doing, but honestly that doesn't always result in a decent mobile experience. Lighten is, as the name hints, a lightweight mind mapping app. It has simple feature set, but is a nice looking app with an intuitive workflow. For anyone looking to get into mind mapping on the iPad without fronting the expense for one of the more feature rich apps like MindNode or iThoughts, Lighten is a really good option. At the moment, with a back to school special still running, Lighten will set you back US$0.99. That is a serious bargain.

The one notable omission at this point is the inability to export to OPML, but there are still a range of export formats that should make that a moot point or all but the most steadfast workflows, and I would suggest that anyone with such a rigid mind mapping regime will probably be well past a gateway drug like Lighten One woudl expect the folks at Xmind. You can export to a Text file, Markdown, image, PDF, and of course both Xmind and Lighten file formats. Most mind mapping apps will parse the map successfully from one of those formats, and converting a mind map to an outline can be done with either Text or Markdown. I tested the transfer between Lighten and MindNode in a silly variety of ways and every time the mind map came out looking just like the cruft that made it from my mind to the so-called map.

If you are looking for a simple, aesthetically pleasing, and competent app to start mind mapping with, I suggest you take a look at Lighten. Xmind have not only done a good job with the app to date, but judging by the release notes the app is a going concern that will continue to receive love and attention. There might come a time that the 99 cents you put down here pays you back tenfold.

Essential iOS Apps for Research and Study


When I started this, earlier this year, I had in mind a friend who was heading back to school and setting up an iPad for the first time. That was at the start of the first semester in the Southern Hemisphere, so it is fair to say I have been a little remiss in getting this more substantial collection together. Nonetheless, it is finally here – and in time for a new school year for that other hemisphere, no less. To my mind, these are the best iOS apps for both students and academics.

Most of the apps on this list are universal – i.e., they work on both iPhone and iPad, and come as a single purchase. That said, certain workflows tend to suit one device over the other. For example, it is a good idea to use the device with the better camera for scanning and applying OCR to documents. I would also add that like everything on this site, what follows might be pitched in the direction of study and research, but most of these recommendations hold well for all manner of creative and project work. So, fill your boots nerds.

Communication, Administration and Planning

Airmail has unrivalled integration with third-party apps and services

Airmail – My preferred email client, for the simple reason that it includes an unrivalled list of integrations. Adding tasks to any major task manager, clipping emails to DEVONthink, managing attachments, adding notes and so on, it’s all trivial with Airmail. A sound alternative is Spark by Readdle.


iOS Natural Language Calendar
Fantastical's unrivalled Natural Language Processing

Fantastical – My favourite calendar app across all platforms. Fantastical has the best natural language engine of any app that I have come across. Even though I love the design of Timepage, I can’t give up Fantastical for the utility and ease of use when it comes to adding events.

Todoist – I have covered task-management here. I use Todoist for a few reasons. The clean, minimal design is easy to work with, and like Fantastical Todoist operates on natural language input. Todoist’s web API also means powerful automation options – for example, with Zapier and IFTT.


Due Reminders – Because sometimes it is not enough to have the singular reminders of a task manager or calendar. If there is truly something you cannot forget, Due is designed to pester you until you do it.

Taskmator – An iOS version of the excellent lightweight, plain text planning app Task Paper. The unique blend of outlining and task management is particularly helpful for planning writing projects. Being plain text, getting information in and out of it is a cinch.



PDF Annotation on iOS
PDF Expert is from the suite of exemplary apps by Readdle

PDF Expert – There are a number of excellent options for PDF viewers on iOS, including the free PDF Viewer that will be enough for many people. PDF Expert remains the standard for the fact that you can go further than annotation and actually edit PDF files. I am yet to find fault with its search capabilities, and unlike many apps that create document copies, PDF Expert will edit your files in place.

Documents by Readdle – It is possible that iOS 11 will make this app almost redundant, but I suspect it will retain a certain amount of utility. Fo awhile it has been the de facto file management app on iOS, but it also includes local sync services, a Wi-Fi drive, and a download manager that have made it something of a problem solver.

Scanner Pro – The last of a Readdle triumvirate. The OCR functionality of mobile scanning apps has improved steadily with the advancement in camera technology to the point where actual hardware scanners are unnecessary for most people now. Scanner Pro is not only one of the most accurate scanning apps, but includes some light automation features. Between scanning articles or books, and digitising forms, either this or Scanbot are very handy.

Focus – Productivity Timer – When I first heard of the Pomodoro Technique, I thought it was daft. I have come to realise it continues to gain in popularity for a reason. If you have a dopamine deficit, are easily distracted or given to procrastination when the pressure is on, this is something than can bring a little order to your endeavours. I’m skeptical of anyone who claims to use it to order an entire day, but intermittent use can be helpful. I settled on Focus as the app for the job for its clean layout, and timer synchronisation with macOS. There are many other apps that will do just as a good a job, just don’t go drinking the productivity guru Kool Aid.


DEVONthink to Go is meant as a companion app, but iOS only users will still get a lot of mileage from it for data management DEVONthink to Go is meant as a companion app, but iOS only users will still get a lot of mileage from it for data management

DEVONthink To Go – There are a lot of people who ditched the iOS version of DEVONthink after the release of the first version – which was a bit of a mess – but the app has come along way. Although technically a companion app, even if you don’t use the Mac apps this is an excellent means for data management.

Papers 3 – My choice of citation managers on the Mac is also the place that houses my largest reading database. It includes a sound compliment of markup tools, and with a little help from an Editorial workflow makes adding reference material to written work almost as straightforward as it is on a Mac. I also tend to do most of my PDF markup work in Papers, as it does a decent job of holding annotations together. The markup tools are not as comprehensive as something like PDF

Oxford Dictionary – This should be self explanatory, but there are choices to make here. In terms of functionality, Terminology is a much better dictionary app, giving users access to URL based automation and spotlight integration. Unfortunately, non American users might struggle with spelling. It is also worth pointing out that the native iOS dictionary has come a long way, and could well be all you need.

Pinner is the best iOS app for Pinner is the best iOS app for

Pinner for – One of the subscription services I have no hesitation recommending is If you have never heard of it, it may look like much, but it is unmatched for archiving bookmarks. Pinboard saves a copy of everything I bookmark as a complete archive, so even if sites disappear I will never lose important content I wish to keep a hold of. Pinner is the third-party app I use as a front end to the service on iOS

Pocket – Eagle-eyed readers will probably notice I have both Instapaper and Pocket on this list, it is true that you only really need one of these apps. My reason for using both is simple, I like to bookmark multimedia content seperate to online reading. I find Pocket best for audio and video.

Notebooks – This is one of those apps thats almost hard to categorise. I’m putting it under research, because ultimately that is how I use it, but it is really a note-taking app first and foremost. Notebooks allows me to set the content it contains as tasks, so if I have a project that requires a specific reading list I will add the documents to Notebooks and setup a reminder schedule. It obviously means I can mark material off as I have gone through it, this feature makes it a unique app for research and study. I covered it briefly here


The Kindle App is one of the best reading experiences on iOS The Kindle App is one of the best reading experiences on iOS

Kindle – If you are a Kindle user, the iOS app is surprisingly good. I still find the Kindle itself a better reading experience for long sessions than reading on the

Marvin – It is true that iBooks has come a long way, it still can’t rival the customisation of Marvin. If you use Calibre on the Mac, Marvin can sync with it too. My ebook collection is split between epub and mobi formats, so even though I prefer to read on the Kindle, I have a lot of books that the Kindle can’t decipher. Anything I can’t read on Kindle, I entrust to Marvin.

Zinio – If you’re a magazine reader, this is the app you want. If your library has newsstand access, you may be able to access untold free titles via what used to be Zinio for Libraries, but has recently become Rbdigital. The new app doesn’t have the polish of Zinio for discovery, but the reading experience is comparable.

Instapaper – I use to archive everything I want to keep [1], but Instapaper for more immediate reading. Pinboard can automatically archive Instapaper articles too, if you want to set that up. Apple’s Reading List is getting better all the time, so that might be enough for many people. For research purposes, Instapaper gives you a log more control and a better reading experience.

I find Feedly’s RSS service to be the most user friendly I find Feedly’s RSS service to be the most user friendly

Feedly – A little while ago I went on a misguided quest looking for the best RSS tools. Ultimately, I ended up back where I started. To my mind, Feedly has the best user experience of all the services and apps I have tried. The free service is great, but you can hook into all kinds of automation and filtering if you want to part with some spare change. A more powerful option is Inoreader, but their apps leave a little to be desired so you would be best served by using it with a third-party client. My pick of clients is the excellent Reeder app that is available on both iOS and macOS.

Nuzzel – If you want the links and articles from twitter and/or Facebook, but don’t want all the noise, then this is for you. It has some annoyances of its own, but I find it to be a valuable source of material.


Outlinely is one of the best available outlining apps for the iPadI recently covered writing on iOS, in terms of word processors and text editors, but as you know there is much more to writing than where you put the words. Along with my preferred text editor, what follows are utilities that help with the process – whether that be thinking, planning or editing.

Editorial – As I write most often in Markdown, Editorial is ideal not only as a text editor, but for its powerful automation engine. For academic writing, Editorial allows me to format citations as universal citekeys.

Outlinely is one of the best available outlining apps for the iPad

Outlinely – A purpose built outliner creates structured documents, and by design helps in the organisation and planning of writing. An outliner is useful for all kinds of sequential planning, but shines in the structuring of academic papers. The opinionated, minimalist design makes Outlinely my preferred app for this on both iOS and macOS, but there are other options. At the high end, OmniOutliner tends to get most votes – it is hard to argue with that.


Mindmapping on iPad
Mindnode’s intuitive and lean interface is a pleasure to work with

MindNode or iThoughts – For mind mapping on iOS, I find it hard to choose between these two. I once read that iThoughts is for ‘power-users’ [2], but aesthetics is probably the most crucial factor here. Mind mapping is an entirely visual thought process, so you have to like what you are looking at. Mindnode is a very clean, slick app – iThoughts is more customisable. A third option is the very tidy Lighten.


Day One – I am a late comer to this, but I have come to accept the value of journalling on the development of a writing practice. Writing as close to everyday as possible is one of the best things you can do to improve your writing, and the journal format is liberating. I am yet to find a better app for keeping a digital journal than this. Day One has balanced all the necessary features with nice interface design, but the Markdown support clinches it for me. This one of many apps to take up a subscription model lately, but you can access all the functionality you need to get started without throwing down more coin.


This is another area I have already covered in relative detail. Despite that being a fairly recent post I have made some changes since it went up. I’m, holding out hope that Brett Terpstra’s Bitwriter is not only forthcoming, but will include an iOS app. There are also interesting changes on the horizon with Appple Notes in iOS 11, most notably with searchable handwriting. Otherwise, the following options remain worthy alternatives.

Goodnotes on the iPad Mini 4

GoodNotes – For a straight up handwriting app that works well no matter what kind of iPad you are running – pro, standard, or mini – GoodNotes is going to be up there. I prefer the design of Notability on the whole, but functionality matters when your notes are as crucial as they are for academic work, and GoodNotes has the killer feature for handwriting – searchable notes.


Nebo – If you have an iPad Pro and Apple Pencil, Nebo’s handwriting recognition and ink engine is next level. Not only does Nebo use a contextual engine to correct word choice and spelling on the fly, but it will render diagrams, manage LaTex calculations, and even export text as HTML. The MySCript folks who make the app are the masters of handwriting recognotion, and the app can read 59 different languages. This is a truly remarkable app – all the more so when you consider it costs less that USD$3


Drafts – Keeping with the plain text rule, Drafts is usually my first point of capture for text, especially on the iPhone. If you are an Apple Watch user, Drafts has an excellent complication for dictation. The real utility of drafts, however, lies in its automation engine – something I couldn’t do justice to here. The screencasts on the Agile Tortoise website can get you started.



Audio Recording

Just Press Record

Just Press Record – The native iPhone Voice Memos app does a great job of capturing audio on the fly, but accessing it on other devices can be a nuisance [3]. Just press record solves that problem with an added bonus. It can also do some on-the-fly audio to text transcription. The results are better than expected, although I wouldn’t rely on it to transcribe entire lectures – we are not quite there yet.

Notability – If it had optical character recognition for searching your handwriting, Notability would be the killer app for lecture notes. It gets pretty close with the ability to capture audio while note-taking; thus its appearance in this section. For students especially, the utility you can get from this one app will make it easier to bump a couple of others of your list. Handritten and typewritten notes, PDF annotation, and audio recording all rolled into one. Last I check it was still pretty cheap too.


Ferrite iOS Digital Audio Workstation
Ferrite stands alone as a full featured digital audio workstation for voice work.

Ferrite – If you ever need to record interviews, this is hands down the best, most feature rich app available on iOS for the job. Designed specifically for voice recording and editing, it can manage anything from capturing audio presentations to producing podcasts and other broadcasts. There are some truly excellent audio recording tools on iOS these days, but most of them are aimed at musicians. With features like ducking, and silence removal Ferrite stands out as the singular app for audio voice work.


VLC Player – A lot of people seem to prefer the more polished Infuse, but VLC for iOS is just as good as its desktop counterpart. There is nothing it cannot play, and unlike its aforementioned rival, it is free.

Easy Image Editing on iPad
Pixelmator is both powerful and easy to use

Pixelmator – If you need photo editing software, the iPhone’s camera technology has encouraged a huge amount of development in this area. Pixelmator has stood out for some time as an app that goes beyond many of the filter and fix apps designed as mobile only utilities. If your needs are modest in this area, and you want an easy to learn, no nonsense app, this is it – and it is cheap.

Affinity Photo – If you have more serious needs, there is only one app that can claim to be a truly professional photo editing tool to rival desktop applications. Affinity is next level stuff.

Affinity Photo iOS
Affinity Photo is one of the first truly professional applications on iOS to rival the power of desktop software.


Workflow is the singular automation utility for iPhone and iPad Workflow is the singular automation utility for iPhone and iPad

Workflow – Acquired by Apple, Workflow is not only the singular automation utility on iOS, but one of the biggest leaps forward in the evolution of iOS as an operating system for serious productivity. If there is anything you can’t already do on your iPad or iPhone, chances are Workflow can help you out. No programming required. Stay tuned for more on this app in future.


TextExpander Keyboard – The sandboxing design of the operating system means TextExpander is not quite as useful on iOS as it is on the Mac. Yet, the Text Expander Keyboard is still well worth installing. The real value to installing TextExpander on iOS is to be found in the apps that include built-in support[4]. Smile maintains a list of TextExpander enhanced apps here. Elsewhere snippets can still be expanded with the third-party keyboard.

1Password – Still my preferred password manager. Not only is it the best user experience, but features like Travel Mode make it an ideal choice for travelling researchers. Password management should be a no-brainer for anyone working on a university network, really it should be a no-brainer for for anyone period.

Soulver is part scratchpad part calculator Soulver is part scratchpad part calculator

Soulver – Part scratch pad, part calculator, Soulver is a uniquely useful utility. The interface operates is a text editor that parses numbers for multiple mathematical operations, including currency conversion. This means you can work things out like you might on the back of a napkin. Adding notation to my scatterbrain calculations helps me make sense of numbers in a way that a traditional calculator can’t. If you need a powerful, more traditional calculator that includes scientific notation, then Pcalc is what you need



Copied – Advanced, cross platform, clipboard management. Copied can do all kinds of neat things, including customisable text transformation, and synchronised clipboard history across devices. A comprehensive URL scheme opens up all kinds of automation possibilities, and a keyboard extension provides easy access to media rich clippings. Other clipboard managers exist, but nothing comes close to Copied for functionality.


Prizmo to Go – There are times when you need to grab a section of text from a book, a journal article, or some random document. There are two apps that I know of that do this well, the other is Textgrabber. While they won’t capture the text perfectly every time, they come pretty close. It can seem like magic when they save you serious time.

Who doesn’t need accurate weather data? Who doesn’t need accurate weather data?

Weather Underground – Weather apps are something of an iOS playground for user interface design, but where the actual weather data comes from is another story. The majority of weather apps on the App Store hook into the Darksky API, which can be hit and miss for accuracy. Weather Underground’s unique selling point is a vast network of local weather stations providing accurate real-time data. I also know of at least one sea captain who uses Weather Underground, so it must be good, right?

That’s a wrap…for now

I decided not to get too crazy here by starting into categories like entertainment, although I may revisit that at some point. One area I intend to delve into is audio production on iOS, but that can wait. For now, I would wager you will find on this list everything you need, and more to get serious work done. I have already said I believe there is no question the iPad can be a primary device for study or research, this should serve as sufficient evidence to support that claim. As ever, if you have any questions, if I can help in any way, hit me up via the contact details over on the left.

  1. Pinboard has a basic bookmarking service, or for a little more it can save web archives of the pages you bookmark. This means you are never in danger of losing material to dead links  ↩

  2. Whatever that means  ↩

  3. But yes, you can easily share it from the iPhone  ↩

  4. Native support makes the previous comment moot. Snippets expand just as they would on a Mac  ↩

Best Apps for Academic Writing on the iPad

Ulysses Ipad Writing 1

This year has seen significant changes to the iPad. Changes have either explicitly relevant to education users, or favourable by virtue of the way developments to both hardware and software suit the various use cases for students, teachers, and researchers alike. With the upcoming release of iOS 11 about to address a number of long-standing usability issues, the iPad is becoming a serious choice for getting your college work done.

I find the inane arguments that do the rounds pitting the iPad against the Mac, or PC, to be mostly pointless. But, to the question of whether or not you can now use the iPad as your primary device for your college or university work, the answer is a resounding of course you can. In fact, in a lot of ways the interaction model and user experience of working on an iPad is not only a good choice for some people, but the best choice. For one, although there has been a quiet evolution of multitasking on iOS, the iPad remains a uniquely focused device for singular tasks. The advantage to such a focused user experience is an especially obvious when it comes to writing. Given that so much of the academic work is writing, embracing a device that, in its design, has a tendency to encourage less distraction can only help.

I would go further, however, to say that the iPad is uniquely enjoyable as a writing device, and continues to improve in this regard all the time. It has seemed obvious for some time that the tablet is an ideal form factor for other academic tasks – namely note-taking and presentation – but if you haven’t yet used it for serious writing, there is no time like the present. With that in mind, I thought I could offer a leg up on the best apps to use for writing on the iPad.

Word processors

These days I prefer not to work in a standard word processor, but that doesn’t mean I can avoid them altogether. Access to all the usual suspects for word processing is just as good on the iPad, if not better in some cases. Microsoft Word, to my mind, has always been a bloated mess that I can’t get far enough away from. Fortunately, if you absolutely have no choice but to use it, the necessity of paring it down for iOS has resulted in an infinitely more useable piece of software. Although, if you do feel you have to stick with a standard word processor, then you are probably better of sticking with Apple’s own Pages. Not only is Pages compatible with Word, it has all the advantages that come with being a native app. Pages has also had some intriguing updates lately, adding LaTex support for mathematical equations for example.

Beyond Word and Pages, there is always Google Docs, which has admittedly improved on iOS since the inclusion of multitasking support. Google has also sown up deals with universities everywhere, which often means unlimited file storage is available. While Apple has started adding collaboration support to their iWork apps, Google Docs remains the standard bearer for simple collaboration.

If you are looking for something different in a word processor, Mellel is developed with features specifically designed for academic work. Most of these things exist in other word processors, but Mellel has made them design features. This means the document outline, footnotes, bibliography and so on, are part of the workflow rather than an afterthought. As I cover below, I do my own long form writing in Scrivener these days, but Mellel is a solid choice for anybody looking to break away from the big names while keeping with a classic word processor.

Markdown Apps

A large amount of the writing I do is in Markdown these days. I briefly outlined a case for why I think that is a good idea for note-taking here, but the portability and future-proofing are just as relevant to all forms of writing. If you're not already writing in Markdown, this is not the kind of article that will persuade you to start. If you are already a Markdown convert, you are well served by the text editors available on iOS. As for my preferred app, I have a couple.

Ulysses iPad Writing
Ulysses remains the most obvious choice for most new users of Markdown

I have already praised Ulysses a couple of times here.  It is one of the best writing apps available period, so ideal for writing essays and research papers. Ulysses is an excellent combination of a lean and distraction free text editor with a more integrated writing tool. It includes subtle features to bridge the gap between rich text and plain text writing. Along with built-in tutorials, this also makes it ideal for coaching new users into using Markdown. The syncing between Mac and iPad is seamless. The universal app on iOS also means that should you wish to indulge in note-taking, or even more detailed writing on your iPhone, your text will all end up in the same place.

Ulysses has also embraced iOS automation. Integration with Workflow has essentially made the app extensible, allowing users to adapt their own automations for getting text in and out of the app. I am mot the most proficient Workflow creator, but I have managed to hack together some simple workflows that allow me to gather and annotate links for posting to this site. For example, throughout the week I gather links for the regular Week Links post. I store them in Drafts as I collect them, but that is idiosyncratic, you can go straight to Ulysses if you would prefer. You can download a copy of the workflow here, if you want to see how it works. At the end of the week, I process the document from Drafts to Ulysses using this Workflow . Granted, these are workflows specifically for web writing, but there is no reason you cannot adapt them for academic needs. Workflow can do practically anything, provided your imagination and patience can drive it to do so. Formatting citations, for example. This is something I intend to come back to in detail, very soon.

If you write for the web, Ulysses has publishing integration for WordPress and Medium. This feature alone has been enough to pique my attention, and start tempting me away from Editorial, a long time favourite on iOS. These are all great things to have in an iOS tech editor, but the real power of Ulysses  is in its capacity to organise text on the fly. Breaking down sections, merging them and moving them around is factored into the DNA of the app. What you end up with is an app that has all the elegance of a minimal text editor with the extremely clever ability to manage serious writing projects.

Best Writing Apps iPad
iA Writer's elegant, minimalist design

As an alternative to Ulysses, if you want something even more minimalist, an app I have always liked is iA Writer . An example of opinionated design, iA Writer provides a wonderfully spartan, and focused writing environment. The app is the product of two things. First, an obsessive attention to detail in responsive typography. And second, the design principle that form follow content. The result is an app that remains deceptively powerful, while getting out of the way of the writing process. Right down to the inclusion of content blocks for managing embedded media. It was iA Writer on the Mac that first converted me to Markdown. The iOS app is not only faithful to the look and feel of the desktop app, but a pleasure to use on the iPad. As more and  more apps smuggle in price rises as they push into the world of subscriptions, the contrast in value is stark with an app like iA Writer that you pay for once.

Next Level Automation

Despite my enthusiasm for these other apps, as I mentioned above, most of the writing I do on the iPad is in Editorial. The main reason is that Editorial includes powerful workflow automation through its Python engine. Not only can I automate a number of tasks, but I can manage citations from a plain text bibliography file. This is something that Workflow could handle with Ulysses, but ultimately Editorial's Python capabilities are even more powerful. The details of how I mange that are something for a later post, but if you have an inkling of what I am referring to, you can do much worse than pick up a copy of Editorial. Despite my enthusiasm for these other apps, as I mentioned above, most of the writing I do on the iPad is in Editorial. The main reason is that Editorial includes powerful workflow automation through its Python engine. Not only can I automate a number of tasks, but I can manage citations from a plain text bibliography file. This is something that Workflow could handle with Ulysses, but ultimately Editorial's Python capabilities are even more powerful. The details of how I mange that are something for a later post, but if you have an inkling of what I am referring to, you can do much worse than pick up a copy of Editorial.
If anything, managing citations is major halting point for academic writing on the iPad — unless you do it manually, like an animal. It is easy enough to hack your way around it for shorter works, but the more in depth the referencing required, the more tricky it becomes. Most, if not all of the major referencing management  conceive of the iPad as a companion device. At best this means apps are designed for reading and annotation, and not for referencing per se. I currently use Papers, which is fine app on the Mac, but is bereft of options on iOS. Luckily, the one thing it can do is export a citekey, and Editorial can do the rest.

Best iPad Text Editors

This is not an exhaustive list by any means. If you are interested in how long the list of iOS text editors has become, take a look at Brett Terpstra's iTextEditors project. Quantity is clearly no obstacle. Quality is another matter. I have put some stock in both design and automation as delimiters. On that basis, 1Writer is the final app I will mention in this category. 1Writer is another well designed app with its own automation engine. If you have any JavaScript chops, you can bend it to your will.

Scrivener for Long Form

Finally, this brings me to Scrivener. If you are working on any kind of long form writing, there is really nothing like it. I mentioned the way that Ulysses can cleverly organise text above. While that is true, it does meet with some limits were complex projects are concerned. I put this down to a consequence of maintaining some of the strengths of that app, adding certain features would interrupt its design.

Best iOS Writing Apps Thesis

Scrivener on the other hand, is a kind of self-contained writing studio.  It has unparalleled features for organising long-form writing projects, including the gathering of research materials and a plethora of tools for mapping, contextualising, and annotating text.  Originally developed for novelists, Scrivener has also steadily gained an academic user base of both students and researchers. As far as I can tell, the only people not using it for manuscript work either haven’t heard of it, or haven’t given it sufficient time to grasp its incredible usefulness.

If you are working on a dissertation or thesis, or a book of any kind, then you will be hard pressed to find a better tool. Although designed for longer work, that doesn’t preclude its usefulness for other kinds of writing. As you can probably tell, I have a penchant for separating writing tasks in specific tools, but I wouldn't advocate indulging in that kind of madness if you can help it. Scrivener excels at any kind of text that requires organisation but it is also on the surface of it a text editor. You can use it to write what you like.

As for using it on iOS. While it started life as desktop only software, the iPad version has near feature parity now. In fact,  it was selected among the App Store best of 2016. Again, this is something I have in mind to cover in significant detail here, time willing.